Credibility: Week 4 – Activity

A1) Find a website for each type of credibility (i.e. presumed, reputed, surface, and earned) and upload  snapshots of the websites on your blog site. Provide a brief explanation why the websites are  credible.

Presumed:Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.21.19 PM.png

The website, Save the children is an organisation that maintains a professional looking web page that is frequently updated, displays relevant content, with clear navigation and is part of a global association.


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ANZ has produce a professional looking website that is incasing with their image as a professional bank. This website is well designed, easily recognisable brand with clear navigation, functional pages and links. Thus, it is a site that achieves surface credibility.


Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.40.09 PM.png

IMDb is a website that firstly provides movie and television reviews as well as recent celebrity news. The website is inclusive with fans by allowing viewers to share their feelings in regards films underneath movie reviews thus allowing for a larger number of opinions and a sense of credibility occurring in numbers.


Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.28.55 PM.png

Google repeatedly provides a search platform that is reliable, consistent in design and function whilst being quick, easy to use and providing relevant links. Google repeatedly provides useful information to the user and therefore its credibility is earned.


Credibility: Week 4 – Question 3

Q3) The findings of Fogg’s studies conducted in 1999 and 2002 (see page 154 of this week’s reading)  indicated that people’s perception of Web credibility has changed. For example, people’s  perception on non‐profit organisation websites has changed since 1999. This is because, nowadays,  setting up a nonprofit website is easy, and therefore the image of non‐profit websites has lost its  value. In dot points, in your own words, list anticipated issues that may affect the users’ perceived  Web credibility in future (200 words).

  • Web page is infrequently updated
  • The page associates with another page which is not credible
  • Advertising overtakes the key information the page should be displaying.
  • The page is built to be persuasive for the purposes of making profit
  • Broken links are supplied to within the website
  • Spelling or grammatical errors displayed
  • Lack of company logo present on the site
  • Lack of clarity as to which company or organization the page is associated with
  • Unprofessional or lacking design of the website
  • Difficult to find a physical address or contact details that match the sites company.
  • Unclear formation of the page making it hard to navigate through the pages within the web site.
  • Random pop ups that are linked to un credible sources, also commonly adverts.
  • Inconsistency in website availability
  • Overuse of advertising that detracts from the pages information
  • Membership or joining fee required to gain access
  • Users must sign up to get access to the web page
  • The information displayed on the site is unexpected
  • The page domain name alters when compared to the company’s
  • Limited information and navigation within the site.
  • The adverts displayed alter from the content being viewed
  • Displays articles without displaying authors or credentials

Credibility: Week 4 – Question 2

Q2) In the learning portfolio, Wikipedia is not accepted as a credible resource for academic  assignments. What do you think is the reason Wikipedia is not accepted (200 – 250 words)

Credibility is viewed as the judgments a user applies when considering the quality of a work (Epping & Wilder, 2011). Aspects such as expertise, trust, and reliability influence credibility. Due to Wikipedia being an open source website the credibility of the information it displays is often altered and thus it is not appropriate for use in academic assignments. Being an open source site means the information on the Wikipedia page can be changed by anyone and thus can be unreliable and inconsistence. The credibility of Wikipedia as an academic source is lessened or to difficult to establish due to the constantly changing nature of the page. Fogg (2003) states credibility is increased when feelings of trust and expertise are strong. However it is very difficult to establish the level expertise of writer of the information and without the ability to inspect supporting affiliations the credibility of any material sourced through Wikipedia is effected (Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab, 2004). Thus, due to the ever-changing nature of Wikipedia, the lack of reliability, dependability and clarification of expertise Wikipedia is not considered a reliable academic source.


Epping, L. L., & Wilder, W. M. (2011). Factors impacting the credibility of website disclosures. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 9(1), 27-46. doi:10.1108/19852511111139787

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers  to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann  Publishers

Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab. (2004) Stanford web credibility research. Retrieved from


Credibility: Week 4 – Question 1

Q1)  The author of this week’s article (Fogg) discussed credibility as a key attribute to evaluate online resources. In your own words, describe why it is important that we evaluate credibility of websites. In your discussion, provide an example of how credibility of the Web resources could affect you as a student (200 – 250 words).

The evaluation of websites to ascertain the credibility of a source, object or process is important to establish the level of knowledge, skill and experience in relation to the information a user is presented with. Epping & Wilder (2011) define credibility as “constellations of judgments that message recipients make about the believability of a communicator.” There is a number of considerations which are to be taken into account when a sense of credibility is established. Fogg (2003) states a users view on the perceived level of credibility is increased with high levels of trust and expertise. Users construct a sense of trust based on the feeling of reliability, dependability and confidence a user of which can be increased if a website highlights the organisation behind the information. Thus, it is important, as a student to establish the credibility of a source in assessing if the information provided is accurate. When completing assignments the inclusion of sources that are not credible may cause a task to appear inaccurate or to be lacking reliability and thus influences the support of a student’s argument, which a reference is intended to supply. Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab (2004) suggests author’s credentials and affiliations influence credibility. Thus, it is important when assessing credibility as student that expertise within the relevant field of study is considered but also that it is recent and relevant.


Epping, L. L., & Wilder, W. M. (2011). Factors impacting the credibility of website disclosures. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 9(1), 27-46. doi:10.1108/19852511111139787

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers  to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann  Publishers

Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab. (2004) Stanford web credibility research. Retrieved from

Performance Load: Week 3- Activity 2


Apple iPhone

Apple Inc. (2016)

The iPhone 6 is a good example of the reduction of performance load in recent times. The iPhone offers the opportunity to complete standard phone tasks and supply music, emails and access to social media. Therefore, reducing the kinematic load through the easy access and lower number of steps involved



A Kettle is another example of the reduction of performance load through the lessening steps involved in boiling water, and thus of kinematic load. The ability to be able to boil water at the touch of a button has reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the process.

Electric Heater



The invention of electric heaters has drastically reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the production of heat. The overall exertion of energy required is minimal in comparison to the amount previously required to light a fire.


Apple Inc. (2016) iPhone 6 screen display. Retrieved from

Robert Dyas. (2016). Kettle image. Retrieved from

Aliexpress. (2016) Electric heater image. Retrieved from

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 3

Q3) The authors borrowed ideas traditionally studied by the psychology to discuss effective visual design. Why do you think a study of psychology is necessary (or not necessary) in design (100 – 150  words)

Design principles are the basis of strong designs, aiding the users perception based on the visual design of a product, good or service. The understanding of users physiological responses in particular situations provides an ability to anticipate user response and produce a good accordingly. Stewart (2015) ascertains the importance of producing a positive user experience and the benefit of reducing cognitive load, which is understood thanks to psychological study. The ability to alter a product in accordance with a demographic or psychographic allows for the potential of increased success through increased usability, consistency and decreasing the users performance load. Thus, the study of psychology is very crucial in influencing design and beneficial in consistently improving user experience.



Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 2


Q2) The authors mentioned a design technique of “chunking” information to reduce cognitive load.Define and describe the chunking technique in relation to design and visual communication (250 – 300 words)

Chunking is defined as “the process of taking individual pieces of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units” Cherry (2016). Cherry (2016) argues that by grouping individual pieces of information together, the amount of information able to be retained is increased. A common example of chunking being phone numbers, rather than a sequence of number the phone number is chunking in groups to increase the ability to remember. Cherry (2016) cites George Miller as advising the capacity of an individuals’ short-term memory to be at roughly four chunks of information. Mayer & Moreno (2003) support the suggestion of chunking in aiding a users learning capacity and encourage the logical segmentation of information so as to allow the users time to process the information they are presented. Cherry (2016) discusses similar aspects of chunking, stating it is seen as so beneficial because of the ability for a person to take segments of information and apply them in a more purposeful and memorable way. Stewart (2015) argues that reducing cognitive load assists in producing a positive user experience  in relation to media usage and is an example where logical application of chunking within design would assist viewers. Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) also discuss the reduction on cognitive and kinematic load in relation to increasing user success as being beneficial, with the use of chunking seen, as is prominent solution in assisting in user performance load reduction.


Cherry, K. (2016) What is chunking and how can it improve your memory. Retrieved from

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578