Performance Load: Week 3- Activity 2

 

Apple iPhone
iphone6p-gray-select-2014_GEO_US

Apple Inc. (2016)

The iPhone 6 is a good example of the reduction of performance load in recent times. The iPhone offers the opportunity to complete standard phone tasks and supply music, emails and access to social media. Therefore, reducing the kinematic load through the easy access and lower number of steps involved

Kettle

Kettlee

A Kettle is another example of the reduction of performance load through the lessening steps involved in boiling water, and thus of kinematic load. The ability to be able to boil water at the touch of a button has reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the process.

Electric Heater

ELECTRIC-HEATERS

 

The invention of electric heaters has drastically reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the production of heat. The overall exertion of energy required is minimal in comparison to the amount previously required to light a fire.

References:

Apple Inc. (2016) iPhone 6 screen display. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com

Robert Dyas. (2016). Kettle image. Retrieved from http://www.robertdyas.co.uk/

Aliexpress. (2016) Electric heater image. Retrieved from http://www.aliexpress.com/

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Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 3

Q3) The authors borrowed ideas traditionally studied by the psychology to discuss effective visual design. Why do you think a study of psychology is necessary (or not necessary) in design (100 – 150  words)

Design principles are the basis of strong designs, aiding the users perception based on the visual design of a product, good or service. The understanding of users physiological responses in particular situations provides an ability to anticipate user response and produce a good accordingly. Stewart (2015) ascertains the importance of producing a positive user experience and the benefit of reducing cognitive load, which is understood thanks to psychological study. The ability to alter a product in accordance with a demographic or psychographic allows for the potential of increased success through increased usability, consistency and decreasing the users performance load. Thus, the study of psychology is very crucial in influencing design and beneficial in consistently improving user experience.

 

References:

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 2

 

Q2) The authors mentioned a design technique of “chunking” information to reduce cognitive load.Define and describe the chunking technique in relation to design and visual communication (250 – 300 words)

Chunking is defined as “the process of taking individual pieces of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units” Cherry (2016). Cherry (2016) argues that by grouping individual pieces of information together, the amount of information able to be retained is increased. A common example of chunking being phone numbers, rather than a sequence of number the phone number is chunking in groups to increase the ability to remember. Cherry (2016) cites George Miller as advising the capacity of an individuals’ short-term memory to be at roughly four chunks of information. Mayer & Moreno (2003) support the suggestion of chunking in aiding a users learning capacity and encourage the logical segmentation of information so as to allow the users time to process the information they are presented. Cherry (2016) discusses similar aspects of chunking, stating it is seen as so beneficial because of the ability for a person to take segments of information and apply them in a more purposeful and memorable way. Stewart (2015) argues that reducing cognitive load assists in producing a positive user experience  in relation to media usage and is an example where logical application of chunking within design would assist viewers. Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) also discuss the reduction on cognitive and kinematic load in relation to increasing user success as being beneficial, with the use of chunking seen, as is prominent solution in assisting in user performance load reduction.

References: 

Cherry, K. (2016) What is chunking and how can it improve your memory. Retrieved from verywell.com

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Performance load: Week 3 – Question 1

Q1) In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the  topic(s) of the article (150 – 200 words).

Article reference:

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Summary:

Reducing both cognitive and kinematic performance loads is seen as beneficial for the user through the increase in probability of successful outcomes. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) define cognitive load as the amount of mental activity expended to achieve a result. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) also define kinematic load as the degree of physical activity to achieve the desired result. Stewart (2015) notes the importance of user experience in both appealing to customers and retaining; suggesting an increased chance of producing a positive user experience can be accomplished through reducing cognitive performance load. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) suggest the reduction of cognitive load can occur through the chunking of information and removal of pointless material. Whilst Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) also state that decreasing the steps involved in the completion of a goal and reducing overall and and energy expenditure (to? what is happening here? He needs some more meat). Mayer & Moreno (2003) argue a different solution in relation to cognitive overload whilst viewing media, the suggested solution being the segmentation to assist the viewers learning. The combination of effective, logical segmentation or chunking of information and the removal of unnecessary steps is seen by Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003), Stewart (2015) and Mayer & Moreno (2003) as the ideal method to use to increase a users learning capacity.

References:

Jacob, E. K., & Loehrlein, A. (2009). Information architecture. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 43(1), 1-64. doi:10.1002/aris.2009.1440430110

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578