Credibility: Week 4 – Activity

A1) Find a website for each type of credibility (i.e. presumed, reputed, surface, and earned) and upload  snapshots of the websites on your blog site. Provide a brief explanation why the websites are  credible.

Presumed:Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.21.19 PM.png

The website, Save the children is an organisation that maintains a professional looking web page that is frequently updated, displays relevant content, with clear navigation and is part of a global association.


Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.33.04 PM.png

ANZ has produce a professional looking website that is incasing with their image as a professional bank. This website is well designed, easily recognisable brand with clear navigation, functional pages and links. Thus, it is a site that achieves surface credibility.


Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.40.09 PM.png

IMDb is a website that firstly provides movie and television reviews as well as recent celebrity news. The website is inclusive with fans by allowing viewers to share their feelings in regards films underneath movie reviews thus allowing for a larger number of opinions and a sense of credibility occurring in numbers.


Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.28.55 PM.png

Google repeatedly provides a search platform that is reliable, consistent in design and function whilst being quick, easy to use and providing relevant links. Google repeatedly provides useful information to the user and therefore its credibility is earned.


Credibility: Week 4 – Question 3

Q3) The findings of Fogg’s studies conducted in 1999 and 2002 (see page 154 of this week’s reading)  indicated that people’s perception of Web credibility has changed. For example, people’s  perception on non‐profit organisation websites has changed since 1999. This is because, nowadays,  setting up a nonprofit website is easy, and therefore the image of non‐profit websites has lost its  value. In dot points, in your own words, list anticipated issues that may affect the users’ perceived  Web credibility in future (200 words).

  • Web page is infrequently updated
  • The page associates with another page which is not credible
  • Advertising overtakes the key information the page should be displaying.
  • The page is built to be persuasive for the purposes of making profit
  • Broken links are supplied to within the website
  • Spelling or grammatical errors displayed
  • Lack of company logo present on the site
  • Lack of clarity as to which company or organization the page is associated with
  • Unprofessional or lacking design of the website
  • Difficult to find a physical address or contact details that match the sites company.
  • Unclear formation of the page making it hard to navigate through the pages within the web site.
  • Random pop ups that are linked to un credible sources, also commonly adverts.
  • Inconsistency in website availability
  • Overuse of advertising that detracts from the pages information
  • Membership or joining fee required to gain access
  • Users must sign up to get access to the web page
  • The information displayed on the site is unexpected
  • The page domain name alters when compared to the company’s
  • Limited information and navigation within the site.
  • The adverts displayed alter from the content being viewed
  • Displays articles without displaying authors or credentials

Performance Load: Week 3- Activity 2


Apple iPhone

Apple Inc. (2016)

The iPhone 6 is a good example of the reduction of performance load in recent times. The iPhone offers the opportunity to complete standard phone tasks and supply music, emails and access to social media. Therefore, reducing the kinematic load through the easy access and lower number of steps involved



A Kettle is another example of the reduction of performance load through the lessening steps involved in boiling water, and thus of kinematic load. The ability to be able to boil water at the touch of a button has reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the process.

Electric Heater



The invention of electric heaters has drastically reduced the cognitive and kinematic loads involved in the production of heat. The overall exertion of energy required is minimal in comparison to the amount previously required to light a fire.


Apple Inc. (2016) iPhone 6 screen display. Retrieved from

Robert Dyas. (2016). Kettle image. Retrieved from

Aliexpress. (2016) Electric heater image. Retrieved from

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 3

Q3) The authors borrowed ideas traditionally studied by the psychology to discuss effective visual design. Why do you think a study of psychology is necessary (or not necessary) in design (100 – 150  words)

Design principles are the basis of strong designs, aiding the users perception based on the visual design of a product, good or service. The understanding of users physiological responses in particular situations provides an ability to anticipate user response and produce a good accordingly. Stewart (2015) ascertains the importance of producing a positive user experience and the benefit of reducing cognitive load, which is understood thanks to psychological study. The ability to alter a product in accordance with a demographic or psychographic allows for the potential of increased success through increased usability, consistency and decreasing the users performance load. Thus, the study of psychology is very crucial in influencing design and beneficial in consistently improving user experience.



Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 2


Q2) The authors mentioned a design technique of “chunking” information to reduce cognitive load.Define and describe the chunking technique in relation to design and visual communication (250 – 300 words)

Chunking is defined as “the process of taking individual pieces of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units” Cherry (2016). Cherry (2016) argues that by grouping individual pieces of information together, the amount of information able to be retained is increased. A common example of chunking being phone numbers, rather than a sequence of number the phone number is chunking in groups to increase the ability to remember. Cherry (2016) cites George Miller as advising the capacity of an individuals’ short-term memory to be at roughly four chunks of information. Mayer & Moreno (2003) support the suggestion of chunking in aiding a users learning capacity and encourage the logical segmentation of information so as to allow the users time to process the information they are presented. Cherry (2016) discusses similar aspects of chunking, stating it is seen as so beneficial because of the ability for a person to take segments of information and apply them in a more purposeful and memorable way. Stewart (2015) argues that reducing cognitive load assists in producing a positive user experience  in relation to media usage and is an example where logical application of chunking within design would assist viewers. Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) also discuss the reduction on cognitive and kinematic load in relation to increasing user success as being beneficial, with the use of chunking seen, as is prominent solution in assisting in user performance load reduction.


Cherry, K. (2016) What is chunking and how can it improve your memory. Retrieved from

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Performance load: Week 3 – Question 1

Q1) In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the  topic(s) of the article (150 – 200 words).

Article reference:

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.  148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.


Reducing both cognitive and kinematic performance loads is seen as beneficial for the user through the increase in probability of successful outcomes. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) define cognitive load as the amount of mental activity expended to achieve a result. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) also define kinematic load as the degree of physical activity to achieve the desired result. Stewart (2015) notes the importance of user experience in both appealing to customers and retaining; suggesting an increased chance of producing a positive user experience can be accomplished through reducing cognitive performance load. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) suggest the reduction of cognitive load can occur through the chunking of information and removal of pointless material. Whilst Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) also state that decreasing the steps involved in the completion of a goal and reducing overall and and energy expenditure (to? what is happening here? He needs some more meat). Mayer & Moreno (2003) argue a different solution in relation to cognitive overload whilst viewing media, the suggested solution being the segmentation to assist the viewers learning. The combination of effective, logical segmentation or chunking of information and the removal of unnecessary steps is seen by Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003), Stewart (2015) and Mayer & Moreno (2003) as the ideal method to use to increase a users learning capacity.


Jacob, E. K., & Loehrlein, A. (2009). Information architecture. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 43(1), 1-64. doi:10.1002/aris.2009.1440430110

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578


Consistency : Week 2 – Question 2

Q2)Study 3 examples (e.g. products found in everyday surroundings) that meet the principle of consistency. Provide a reasoned explanation for each example why they meet the design principle  (300 – 350 words).

Water Bottle


Pictured is a bottle of water, through consistency as Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) state aesthetic similarities enable consumers to be capable of learning and acknowledging when goods are displayed in similar ways. Functionality of a bottle of water is clear to the consumer and they are able to understand that a bottle of water is a bottle of water due to external consistencies even in differing cultures.Wang, Hong & Lou (2010)  discussed aesthetics in relation to web design however their views applied in this case, through repetition and similarities consumers easily understand how to differentiate products and select according to the desired use.



ATMs display consistency through all four forms, aesthetically all ATM’s are designed with similar interfaces with the only major variances being the company colours and logo that are used to increase brand recognition. Functionally all machines operate in a  very similar manner and use interactive displays that are alike as to incorporate internal consistency. Thus, the consumer no matter the location or which company ATM may belong  is able comfortably and confidently operate the machine due sense of reliability and trust consistency imparts (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003).

Stop Sign

Stop sign .jpg

Stop signs display a universal meaning across many cultures. Due to consistency, we as a user understand that a red octagon shape means to cease all movement. This recognition occurs due to aesthetic consistency in repeatedly producing similar displays despite varying locations. Internal consistency reinforces the stop signs meaning  which allows the external consistency to be understood despite it being used in varying environments. Thus, building a sense of understanding and trust within a user of what is being asked of them. Montella & Imbriani (2015) state usability is increased when consistency is utilized so a user can apply existing knowledge to the product, service or in this case, road sign.


ANZ (2016) ANZ ATM. Retrieved from (2016) Stop sign. Retrieved from

Montella, A., & Imbriani, L. L. (2015). Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.019

Nosh (2011) Water bottle image. Retrieved from

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Wang, Y. J., Hong, S., & Lou, H. (2010). BEAUTIFUL BEYOND USEFUL? THE ROLE OF WEB AESTHETICS. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 50(3), 121-129. Retrieved from