Credibility: Week 4 – Activity

A1) Find a website for each type of credibility (i.e. presumed, reputed, surface, and earned) and upload  snapshots of the websites on your blog site. Provide a brief explanation why the websites are  credible.

Presumed:Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.21.19 PM.png

https://www.savethechildren.org.au/

The website, Save the children is an organisation that maintains a professional looking web page that is frequently updated, displays relevant content, with clear navigation and is part of a global association.

Surface:

Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.33.04 PM.png

https://www.anz.com/

ANZ has produce a professional looking website that is incasing with their image as a professional bank. This website is well designed, easily recognisable brand with clear navigation, functional pages and links. Thus, it is a site that achieves surface credibility.

Reputed:

Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.40.09 PM.png

http://www.imdb.com/

IMDb is a website that firstly provides movie and television reviews as well as recent celebrity news. The website is inclusive with fans by allowing viewers to share their feelings in regards films underneath movie reviews thus allowing for a larger number of opinions and a sense of credibility occurring in numbers.

Earned:

Screen Shot 2016-05-29 at 11.28.55 PM.pnghttps://www.google.com.au

Google repeatedly provides a search platform that is reliable, consistent in design and function whilst being quick, easy to use and providing relevant links. Google repeatedly provides useful information to the user and therefore its credibility is earned.

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Credibility: Week 4 – Question 3

Q3) The findings of Fogg’s studies conducted in 1999 and 2002 (see page 154 of this week’s reading)  indicated that people’s perception of Web credibility has changed. For example, people’s  perception on non‐profit organisation websites has changed since 1999. This is because, nowadays,  setting up a nonprofit website is easy, and therefore the image of non‐profit websites has lost its  value. In dot points, in your own words, list anticipated issues that may affect the users’ perceived  Web credibility in future (200 words).

  • Web page is infrequently updated
  • The page associates with another page which is not credible
  • Advertising overtakes the key information the page should be displaying.
  • The page is built to be persuasive for the purposes of making profit
  • Broken links are supplied to within the website
  • Spelling or grammatical errors displayed
  • Lack of company logo present on the site
  • Lack of clarity as to which company or organization the page is associated with
  • Unprofessional or lacking design of the website
  • Difficult to find a physical address or contact details that match the sites company.
  • Unclear formation of the page making it hard to navigate through the pages within the web site.
  • Random pop ups that are linked to un credible sources, also commonly adverts.
  • Inconsistency in website availability
  • Overuse of advertising that detracts from the pages information
  • Membership or joining fee required to gain access
  • Users must sign up to get access to the web page
  • The information displayed on the site is unexpected
  • The page domain name alters when compared to the company’s
  • Limited information and navigation within the site.
  • The adverts displayed alter from the content being viewed
  • Displays articles without displaying authors or credentials

Performance Load: Week 3 – Question 2

 

Q2) The authors mentioned a design technique of “chunking” information to reduce cognitive load.Define and describe the chunking technique in relation to design and visual communication (250 – 300 words)

Chunking is defined as “the process of taking individual pieces of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units” Cherry (2016). Cherry (2016) argues that by grouping individual pieces of information together, the amount of information able to be retained is increased. A common example of chunking being phone numbers, rather than a sequence of number the phone number is chunking in groups to increase the ability to remember. Cherry (2016) cites George Miller as advising the capacity of an individuals’ short-term memory to be at roughly four chunks of information. Mayer & Moreno (2003) support the suggestion of chunking in aiding a users learning capacity and encourage the logical segmentation of information so as to allow the users time to process the information they are presented. Cherry (2016) discusses similar aspects of chunking, stating it is seen as so beneficial because of the ability for a person to take segments of information and apply them in a more purposeful and memorable way. Stewart (2015) argues that reducing cognitive load assists in producing a positive user experience  in relation to media usage and is an example where logical application of chunking within design would assist viewers. Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) also discuss the reduction on cognitive and kinematic load in relation to increasing user success as being beneficial, with the use of chunking seen, as is prominent solution in assisting in user performance load reduction.

References: 

Cherry, K. (2016) What is chunking and how can it improve your memory. Retrieved from verywell.com

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_6

Stewart, T. (2015). User experience. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(10), 949-951. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2015.1077578

Consistency : Week 2 – Question 2

Q2)Study 3 examples (e.g. products found in everyday surroundings) that meet the principle of consistency. Provide a reasoned explanation for each example why they meet the design principle  (300 – 350 words).

Water Bottle

water_bottle_PNG10157.png

Pictured is a bottle of water, through consistency as Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) state aesthetic similarities enable consumers to be capable of learning and acknowledging when goods are displayed in similar ways. Functionality of a bottle of water is clear to the consumer and they are able to understand that a bottle of water is a bottle of water due to external consistencies even in differing cultures.Wang, Hong & Lou (2010)  discussed aesthetics in relation to web design however their views applied in this case, through repetition and similarities consumers easily understand how to differentiate products and select according to the desired use.

ATM

ATM-100525.jpg

ATMs display consistency through all four forms, aesthetically all ATM’s are designed with similar interfaces with the only major variances being the company colours and logo that are used to increase brand recognition. Functionally all machines operate in a  very similar manner and use interactive displays that are alike as to incorporate internal consistency. Thus, the consumer no matter the location or which company ATM may belong  is able comfortably and confidently operate the machine due sense of reliability and trust consistency imparts (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003).

Stop Sign

Stop sign .jpg

Stop signs display a universal meaning across many cultures. Due to consistency, we as a user understand that a red octagon shape means to cease all movement. This recognition occurs due to aesthetic consistency in repeatedly producing similar displays despite varying locations. Internal consistency reinforces the stop signs meaning  which allows the external consistency to be understood despite it being used in varying environments. Thus, building a sense of understanding and trust within a user of what is being asked of them. Montella & Imbriani (2015) state usability is increased when consistency is utilized so a user can apply existing knowledge to the product, service or in this case, road sign.

 References:

ANZ (2016) ANZ ATM. Retrieved from http://www.media.anz.com/

Cliparts.co (2016) Stop sign. Retrieved from http://cliparts.co/stop-sign

Montella, A., & Imbriani, L. L. (2015). Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.019

Nosh (2011) Water bottle image. Retrieved from http://www.berkeleyside.com/2011/03/31/weaning-off-the-bottle-uc-berkeley-tests-the-waters/

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Wang, Y. J., Hong, S., & Lou, H. (2010). BEAUTIFUL BEYOND USEFUL? THE ROLE OF WEB AESTHETICS. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 50(3), 121-129. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/287960516?accountid=10675

Consistency : Week 2 – Question 1

Q1)In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the  topic of the article

Article Reference: Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Summary:

The usability of a product, good, or service is enhanced when utilising consistency within design, therefore allowing consumers a level of familiarity that increases user confidence and learnability. Lidwell, Holden & Butler (2003) state “systems are more usable and learnable when similar parts are expressed in similar ways” alluding to the idea that by applying aesthetic, function, internal and external consistency in similar ways these methods then increase consumer trust, whilst providing a sense of reliability to the user. Similarly Cai & Xu (2011) argue to the importance of aesthetics within web design whilst also noting the role of recognition in creating a positive user experience. This occurs through consistency in the design, internal and external consistency play a vital role, particularly in web design in reinforcing user recognition of page functions from one website to another. Wang, Hong & Lou (2010) studied the effects and role of aesthetics within web design concluding the usability of a site has a positive effect on the consumer’s intent to purchase a product. It is important to note the usability of a site is dependent on the four forms of consistency, for example brand association occurs due to aesthetic consistency whilst functionality of a site ensures the consumers ease of use. Internal and External consistency co exist to ensure user understanding is increased despite occurring across multiple platforms and contexts. Interestingly Montella & Imbriani (2015) discuss safety of road users in correlation to design consistency, and the importance of design consistency. Montella & Imbriani (2015) argue that consistency is the key design element responsible for safety on roads and warn as to the outcomes that inconsistencies in design may cause. Thus it can be understood that the usability of design is increased when similar displays are used across varying platforms, no matter if it is a web page, mobile phone or a car it is beneficial for the user if designs are produced using continuity. The user can then effectively apply existing knowledge to new products, services or situations allowing a sense of reliability, understanding and a sense of ‘know-how’.

References:

Cai, S., & Xu, Y. (2011). Designing not just for pleasure: Effects of web site aesthetics on consumer shopping value.International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(4), 159-188. doi:10.2753/JEC1086-4415150405

Montella, A., & Imbriani, L. L. (2015). Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 133-144. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.019

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Wang, Y. J., Hong, S., & Lou, H. (2010). BEAUTIFUL BEYOND USEFUL? THE ROLE OF WEB AESTHETICS. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 50(3), 121-129. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/287960516?accountid=10675

 

Aesthetic Usability Effect: Week 1 – Question 2

Q2)Study 3 examples (e.g. products found in everyday surroundings) that meet the aesthetic usability effect principle. Provide a reasoned explanation for each item why they meet the design principle  (300 – 350 words)

Examples of products that meet the aesthetic usability effect principle.

iPhone 6Siphone6p-gray-select-2014_GEO_US.jpg

(Apple Inc,2016)

Pictured is the latest Apple phone released, the iPhone 6S. The product has a clean design with a range of encouraging colour tones, and a clean interface that attracts a user. Porat and Tractinksy (2012) argue the importance of an object to be aesthetically attractive to consumers due to the impact aesthetic design has on the formation of first impressions. The product is attractive to look at with clean lines, intuitive functions and vast technical specifications creating a sense of prestige that is attached to the product creating a sense of familiarity for the user whilst encouraging brand loyalty. As noted by Lidwel, Holden and Butler (2003) these product features all combine to create a good attitude among a majority of consumers of the product, generating an overall acceptance of changes or glitches that may occur. This device aids its customer, acting as a symbol of status due to brand loyalty and dominance (Norman, 20130).

Honda CR-V

(Kelley Blue Brook, 2016)

Cars are designed as a mode of transport, simply getting us from our location to our desired destination and yet they also convey the status or image of the consumer. The vehicle pictured is produced as a ‘family’ vehicle, thus emphasis is on functionality, usability and storage whilst maintaining aesthetic appeal to attract consumers. Porat and Tractinksy (2012) have noted this is important from a human behavior standpoint in producing a positive user experience of which is very important when purchasing a high involvement good. . This car effectively portrays itself as a solid, reliable family car through its size whilst maintaining an attractive shape thus effectively fitting the intended users requirements whilst increasing the role of the product in portraying a certain status or image the purchaser may wish to exude (Norman, 2013).

Apple Macbook

Apple mac(Apple Inc,2016)

Laptops are another important device many use daily. The practicality of using a laptop and taking the product with you away from home is largely due to the smooth aesthetic design, making the product light in weight whilst being nice to look at. Laptops such as the Apple Mac Book pictured display encouraging usability whilst obtaining the same ability to complete tasks as a desktop computer, thus are a practical device that encourages positive user experiences (Cooper 1999 cited by Ho & Siu, 2012).

References

Apple Inc. (2016) iPhone 6 screen display. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com

Apple Inc. (2016) Apple Macbook. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com

Ho, A. G., & Siu, Kin Wai Michael G. (2012). Emotion design, emotional design, emotionalize design: A review on their relationships from a new perspective. The Design Journal, 15(1), 9-31. doi:10.2752/175630612X13192035508462

Kelley Blue Brook Co. (2016) Honda CR-V. Retrieved from http://www.kbb.com

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 18‐19). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things (1st Basic paperback;1; ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Porat, T., & Tractinsky, N. (2012). It’s a pleasure buying here: The effects of web-store design on consumers’ emotions and attitudes. Human-Computer Interaction, 27(3), 235-276. doi:10.1080/07370024.2011.646927

 

 

Aesthetic Usability Effect: Week 1 – Question 1

Q1)In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the  topic of the article (300 – 350 words).

Article reference:
Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 18‐19). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Summary:

Aesthetic design influences the consumption of a product or good due to consumers desire to engage. Lidwell, Holden and butler (2003) state the aesthetic design influences consumer behavior in a positive or negative way. The better the aesthetic design, the greater the chance of that particular product being used or good being purchased. Norman (2002)  states “pleasure derivable from the appearance or functioning of the tool increases positive affect, broadening the creativity and increasing the tolerance for minor difficulties and blockages.” Norman’s (2002) point of view agrees with Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003), both arguing the aesthetic appearance of a device or good influences the consumers behaviour. Another aspect known to influence negative or positive behaviour is the usability of a product design (Porat and Tractinksy, 2012). Porat and Tractinksy (2012) go on to discuss the relation of aesthetics to human behaviour, highlighting the importance of positive first impressions due to the fast and consistent consumption of design by an audience. It is important to note the relationship of aesthetics and first impressions when designing products for users and aiming to encourage a positive user experience. Cooper (1999) as cited by Ho and Siu (2012) “Argued that the majority of available technological devices made users feel inadequate and frustrated by poorly designed user interfaces.” Cooper discusses the frustration and  negative emotion a consumer may experience due to poor or unclear design of a product. It is important for this reason, despite the possibly vast ability of a product that the  design remains simple, clear and functional able for the consumers ease of use.  The design of a good is dependent on it’s use and the intended target market, Norman (2013) includes the idea that some products are involved in the creation of a persons image as a way to creating status. In this instance, the aesthetics of a product would be hugely influential upon the development of a brand and increasing its user base.  It is important for these reasons to consider aesthetic design and the impact it has upon product users. 

 

References:

Ho, A. G., & Siu, Kin Wai Michael G. (2012). Emotion design, emotional design, emotionalize design: A review on their relationships from a new perspective. The Design Journal, 15(1), 9-31. doi:10.2752/175630612X13192035508462

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of  Design (pp. 18‐19). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things (1st Basic paperback;1; ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Norman, D. (2002). Emotion & design: Attractive things work better. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/543434.543435

Porat, T., & Tractinsky, N. (2012). It’s a pleasure buying here: The effects of web-store design on consumers’ emotions and attitudes. Human-Computer Interaction, 27(3), 235-276. doi:10.1080/07370024.2011.646927